The practice of scientific software development is changing:
Scientific software teams today are more diverse and varied than in the past. In recent years, we have seen the emergence of novel professional identities such as research software engineers, complex scientific challenges necessitating multidisciplinary collaboration, and teams becoming more distributed and multi-institutional. As a result, there's a greater need for communication and consensus in scientific software development.1
The forefront of scientific software is increasingly open source, open science, and community driven. Most scientific software developers are their own users, but today they are more likely to have to interface with external users of their software. They need to think about both their own needs and the needs of others.
The overall workload for scientific software developers is mounting. Not only must scientific software developers evolve their codes to keep pace with the science (in an era when scientific output is growing exponentially!), they must also contend with disruptive changes in hardware and software environments. Teams are finding themselves pulled in many different directions, and managing this complexity requires better strategies for planning and prioritizing development work to make the best use of finite resources.
At the convergence of all these trends, scientific software development teams are having to plan and organize their work more explicitly and intentionally. In other words, they are having to do requirements engineering. In software engineering parlance, a software requirement2 is a condition or capability of the software needed by a stakeholder to solve a problem or achieve an objective; and requirements engineering is the process of formally identifying, documenting, and validating those software requirements. As Smith et al. have noted, there has long been a prevailing belief that requirements engineering is impractical and infeasible for scientific software development.3 After all, scientific software is often highly exploratory, and scientific software developers have long been their own users. Nevertheless, given the increasingly multidisciplinary, community-driven, and complex nature of scientific software development, we argue that the need for requirements engineering is unavoidable at this point.
In this article we make the case for a lightweight requirements specification technique that we believe teams could adopt in practice: user stories. User stories are a well-known and popular technique for representing requirements in Agile software development; they encode requirements in natural language, often from the perspective of an end user. The most common template for user stories is "As a <role>, I want <requirement> so that <reason>"; this is also known as the Connextra template.4 Outside of user requirements, user stories are also employed in software process improvement, that is, for articulating developers' needs. We'll share here our experiences in experimenting with user stories and our lessons learned, and we'll provide guidelines for teams looking to employ user stories in their own projects.
Our experiences with user stories
A few years ago the IDEAS-ECP project began experimenting with user stories as a tool to engender empathy and deepen understanding of scientific software development needs. In an exercise involving 15-20 people, the team created and refined 59 user stories to develop an understanding of what scientific software developers might need and how IDEAS-ECP could best support them. For the team's purposes, the stories were binned as follows: training and documentation, software integration and testing, software quality, practices and standards, software development, and operational needs. Most user stories the team created were about process improvement, that is, finding better ways of thinking about and working with scientific software. The following are two examples.
As an application architect I want to better understand version control capabilities that allow integration of independently developed components so that we can distribute a coherent software stack.
As a developer of numerical software, I want a process to stress test the software functionalities under different compilation scenarios and with an increasing set of difficult cases, so that the consideration or adoption of alternative functionalities is supported by the same rigorous tests.
A seamless incorporation of user stories
After that experiment, we realized that user stories could become a component of Productivity and Sustainability Improvement Planning (PSIP), a lightweight workflow for software process improvement that can be used on its own or alongside frameworks such as Kanban, or Agile. PSIP provides tools and resources to set, measure, and realize improvement goals and can be implemented through Progress Tracking Cards (PTCs) to achieve quality goals. To illustrate, the figure above portrays two software development approaches, one (cost prohibitive) based on incremental changes and one (with more long-term efficiencies) that has requirements for programmer productivity and software sustainability. PTCs can be gracefully combined with user stories to suit the latter approach and then used by scientific software teams to help improve software projects. We give three examples.
The improvement consists in promoting user confidence in software updates, to ensure that users trust application performance and behavior changes made by an update/new release. This improvement needs to be aligned with the values and priorities of the team; it can be anchored by a story such as the following: "As a software engineer I want to instill user confidence in updating the application so that the latest application release is adopted."
The improvement consists in setting up automated continuous integration testing to allow a restructuring of a codebase safely and to increase reproducibility. Stakeholders may want the same outcome but for different reasons, and the following user stories would be possible: (a) "As a researcher and a PI, I want to ensure that however the software evolves over time all the scientific results our code generates remain valid so that we can be confident that our results will stand the test of time." (b) "As a developer, I want to make sure that, if I add a new feature, I have also written the appropriate tests for that feature so that the code is sufficiently trustworthy." (c) "As a researcher and developer, I want to ensure that we can refactor our code without altering the results produced by that code so that the code is still reliable."
The improvement consists in steadily converting a codebase over to an agreed-upon standard, for example in the context of the HDF5 library. In this case, stakeholders may have distinct needs, which need to be handled in different ways. The following user stories would be possible: (a) "As a person responsible for software quality and correctness for the HDF5 library, I want guidance on selecting and implementing coding standards so that we can make our code easy for everyone to read and understand." (b) "As a an HDF5 library developer or community contributor, I want support so that I am complying with the standards with minimal additional effort or ambiguity."
How you can get started with user stories
For readers looking to adopt user stories within their own projects, we highly recommend starting with a storywriting workshop as we did in the IDEAS-ECP project.
Schedule at least an hour-long meeting to do the workshop. Make clear that the goal of the meeting is to collect ideas to gather project requirements and express them with stories, and make sure participants come prepared with ideas.
Nominate at least one stakeholder to help lead the session, and make sure certain rules are followed: everyone can freely contribute user stories without judgment or critique, a high quantity of stories is desired, and participants are free to combine and add to others' ideas.
Make sure that every user story is written down and stored in a place where everyone has access to them, so that they can be collaboratively refined later.
Many resources are available online5 with guidelines on how to write effective user stories, and we encourage teams to peruse those. We do note, however, that none to our knowledge speak directly to scientific software development. Along those lines, we have a small set of guidelines of our own to help frame this story-writing exercise.
The you in user story: Scientific software developers are often their own users, and user stories can be a powerful tool for introspection. We encourage teams to consider user stories as a tool to express what they themselves value and consider important, not just what other external stakeholders consider valuable. Likewise, collaboratively writing user stories presents an opportunity to surface and then resolve potential differences in priorities among different team members.
User stories as experiments: We recommend that teams agree to a "definition of done" for stories, a common set of criteria needed to close out a story (e.g., the story has a deliverable that was met; the work was reviewed by other team members). Closing out a story, however can be tricky for scientific software teams as their software can be constantly evolving; user stories might not pan out or could turn out to be more involved or complicated than originally thought. A useful way to frame a definition of done for user stories is to view them as an experiment. Think of a requirement as a hypothesis that a unit of work will deliver value to the project. That hypothesis should be testable; that is, some criteria for success should be agreed upon in advance. Moreover, the result of that test should ideally be valuable regardless of whether the user story is "successful" or not. As an example, a user story may be the following: "As an application developer, I want to show it is possible to port our application code to the new platform so that we can take advantage of the next-generation hardware." The code, however, (a) may not be able to be ported, (b) can be ported with extensive additional effort, or (c) is relatively easy to port. Gathering the data needed to make that determination is a value-add on its own, regardless of the outcome, and could be used to derive future user stories.
Given the ever-growing demand for complex simulations and analysis, developing the right software in the right way becomes essential. We think that user stories are a valuable tool and technique for accomplishing those goals, and we offer a potential to render intricate goals or tasks in scientific software development into smaller and tangible requirements because (a) they are lightweight and can capture what we want in a natural language; (b) they are easy to write, facilitating their adoption; (c) they encourage reflection and communication, especially with regard to software processes; (d) they can expose differences in assumptions and priorities;and (e) they can help with consensus-building and consequently with commitment to action.
Osni A. Marques is a staff scientist in the Applied Mathematics & Computational Research Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He has worked with software libraries that provide solutions to common and important computational problems in engineering and scientific applications. He has studied and implemented algorithms for the solution of numerical linear algebra problems in applications related to the motion of proteins, acoustics problems, structural analyses, inverse problems in geophysics, and electronic properties of materials. Osni is currently involved in the IDEAS Productivity project and training activities of the DOE Exascale Computing Project.
Reed M. Milewicz is a computer scientist and software engineering researcher in the Department of Software Engineering and Research at Sandia National Laboratories. His research focuses on developing better practices, processes, and tools to improve software development in the scientific domain, ranging from technologies such as compilers and formal verification tools to direct engagement with software teams through evidence-based software process improvement. He leads software science research efforts within his department and is a member of the Interoperable Design of Extreme-Scale Application Software (IDEAS) project, where he is part of the Productivity and Sustainability Improvement Planning team.
- 1Position Papers for the ASCR Workshop on the Science of Scientific-Software Development and Use, doi:10.2172/1843575 pp. 176-177
- 2Overview of Requirements and Requirements Engineering
- 3Debunking the Myth That Upfront Requirements Are Infeasible for Scientific Computing Software, doi:10.1109/SE4Science.2019.00011
- 4User Stories Applied: For Agile Software Development, isbn:978-0321205681
- 5User stories with examples and a template